Cracow, Poland

Applied Geology: Earth and Extraterrestrial Materials

  • Description:

  • pl
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only object in the Universe known to harbor life. According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth formed over 4.5 billion years ago. Earth's gravity interacts with other objects in space, especially the Sun and the Moon, Earth's only natural satellite. Earth revolves around the Sun in 365.26 days, a period known as an Earth year. During this time, Earth rotates about its axis about 366.26 times.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also refer to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite, (such as Mars or the Moon).
In collecting the primary geologic data, some personal capacities of the geologist (such as strong physique, perceptive faculties, perseverance, talent for drawing) are generally of much greater importance than in any of the sister sciences, which can rely on the quality of the instruments used in collecting primary data… Hans Cloos (1949) called this way of interrogation [by geologists] "the dialogue with the earth," "das Gespraich mit der Erde."
In: p. 456.
The past history of our globe must be explained by what can be seen to be happening now. No powers are to be employed that are not natural to the globe, no action to be admitted except those of which we know the principle.
James Hutton, Theory of the Earth. (Paper, published in Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1785).
The increasing number of factors playing a role in the various complexes of natural phenomena are the origin of new, so-called emergent, laws and characteristics. Based on this principle of emergence, a hierarchy of sciences can be distinguished: physics-chemistry-geology-biology-psychology.
In: p. 453


30 Mickiewicza Av.
30-059 Krakow
Centre for International Students

Regular studies
P: +48 12 617 50 92
P: +48 12 617 46 15
F: +48 12 617 52 39

Exchange programmes
P: +48 12 617 52 37
P: +48 12 617 52 38
F: +48 12 617 52 39
Privacy Policy