An audit is a systematic and independent examination of books, accounts, statutory records, documents and vouchers of an organization to ascertain how far the financial statements as well as non-financial disclosures present a true and fair view of the concern. It also attempts to ensure that the books of accounts are properly maintained by the concern as required by law. Auditing has become such a ubiquitous phenomenon in the corporate and the public sector that academics started identifying an "Audit Society". The auditor perceives and recognises the propositions before them for examination, obtains evidence, evaluates the same and formulates an opinion on the basis of his judgement which is communicated through their audit report.
Economics () is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Finance is a field that deals with the study of investments. It includes the dynamics of assets and liabilities over time under conditions of different degrees of uncertainties and risks. Finance can also be defined as the science of money management. Market participants aim to price assets based on their risk level, fundamental value, and their expected rate of return. Finance can be broken into three sub-categories: public finance, corporate finance and personal finance.
International mostly means something (a company, language, or organization) involving more than a single country. The term international as a word means involvement of, interaction between or encompassing more than one nation, or generally beyond national boundaries. For example, international law, which is applied by more than one country and usually everywhere on Earth, and international language which is a language spoken by residents of more than one country.
The blunt truth about the politics of climate change is that no country will want to sacrifice its economy in order to meet this challenge.
Tony Blair, address to the 2005 G8 climate change summit in London, as reported by David Adam, "Blair signals shift over climate change", The Guardian, 1 November 2005.
In my youth it was said that what was too silly to be said may be sung. In modern economics it may be put into mathematics.
Ronald Coase, The firm, the market and the law (1988) Chapter 6. A remark on "The problem of social cost" (last sentence).
Economists have never allowed their analysis to be influenced by psychologists of their time, but have always framed for themselves such assumptions about psychical processes as they have thought it desirable to make.
Joseph Schumpeter, History of Economic Analysis, 1945. p. 27